R & R 2

R&R2 programs are based on twenty years of research that has been conducted since R&R was first published in 1986:

  • research on motivating reluctant, ambivalent and difficult clients

  • research on the relationship between antisocial behaviour and cognition

  • research on the role of emotion in prosocial competence

  • research on the development of empathy

  • research on "emotional values"

  • research on prosocial modeling

  • research on relapse prevention

  • research on desistance from an antisocial lifestyle

  • research on social cognitive neuroscience

R&R2 programs are based on a revised cognitive behavioural model – the "neurocriminology" model that incorporates the findings from all of the foregoing research. Each R&R2 version focuses on the particular needs of specific groups,all teach the following cognitive/emotional/behavioral skills, attitudes and values:

  • metacognition (including self-talk); social perspective taking; pro-social values; pro-social problem-solving; creative thinking; critical reasoning; conflict management; negotiation.
  • emotional competence (recognizing and identifying not only the emotions of others, but also their own emotions; regulating their emotions)
  • fundamental interpersonal skills such as attending to and accurately interpreting social cues; nonverbal communication skills; generating effective solutions to interpersonal problems; anticipating the consequences of one’s potential actions; and expressing solutions in a pro-social and effective manner. 
  • active Listening - Active listening skills which not only equip participants with an important social skill but also help them to acquire practice in both empathic understanding and expressing empathy.
  • prosocial Life-Story - How individuals behave is strongly influenced by their “scripts” or their “self-narrative” that they develop through their social experience that tells them who they are and why they are that way. R&R2 includes interventions that lead participants to change their antisocial scripts to prosocial ones by engaging them in prosocial roles in which they assume the role of caring, pro-social, problem-solvers. They learn to realize the rewards that can ensue from pro-social behaviour.  
  • Relapse Prevention - Anticipating factors and situations in their environments that can trigger their previous ways of responding and learning pro-social skills for coping with them in order to ensure long term maintenance of positive treatment outcomes.
  • Motivation - R&R2 programs provide theoretically sound, practical, and effective ways to motivate reluctant, resistant and ambivalent clients. They are taught skills that will enable them to change. Note: It is not only Trainers who are taught MI, it is also their clients! Participants learn basic Motivational Interviewing skills that they can apply in their interpersonal interactions with peers and relatives who, like the participants, may be feeling the need to change.

Pro-social Self-efficacy - Pro-social skills and confidence in their ability to employ those skills.

Descriptions of each of the R&R2 programs can be viewed by clicking on the titles on the side bar 

Most R&R2 programs can be purchased without additional training by individuals who have been trained in R&R or another R&R2 program. Contact cognitivecentre@gmail.com

R&R2 for Antisocial Adults (16 and older) (Also in Spanish)

R&R2 for Antisocial Youths (12-16) (also in Spanish, 2011)  

R&R2 for ADHD Youths and Adults 

R&R2 for Girls and Young Women

R&R2 for Youths and Adults With Mental Health Problems 

R&R2 for Families and Support Persons