R&R2 programs are new editions of R&R that are based on numerous international evaluations of R&R and research on cognition and crime conducted since R&R was developed in 1986.  They are also based on recent research on the following:

  • management of emotion 
  • relapse prevention
  • prosocial modeling & role-playing
  • social cognitive neuroscience

Each R&R2 version teaches all of the cognitive skills taught in R&R: 

  • problem-solving
  • social skills
  • anger management
  • critical reasoning
  • creative thinking 
  • values 

R&R2 programs also teach the following:

  • SELF-MONITORING: Neuroscience research has made it clear that our behavior is often triggered by ac­tivity deep in the brain and not just in the neo-cortex (the "rational" area of the brain). We do not always operate in a thoughtful manner.  Much of the time we function in an automatic mode. An offender’s antisocial behavior is often triggered by thoughts of which they may not be fully aware and is reflexive rather than deliberative. R&R2 programs train offenders to attend to the thoughts that trigger their anti-social acts. They are also led to realize that they are the originators of these triggers and not simply the victims of them.  They are trained to become aware of their self-talk, recognize when their self-talk is antisocial, and taught how to replace antisocial self-talk with pro-social self-talk. 
  • EMOTIONAL MANAGEMENT: Participants are also trained to attend to and identify the emotions that trigger their antisocial behavior. Neuroscience research has shown that accurately putting feelings into words can weaken negative emotions. Participants are taught how to reduce the strength of their emotions by training in a brief relaxation method that has been found to appeal to offenders.
  • INTERPERSONAL SKILLS: A key factor in an offender’s desistance from antisocial behavior is close personal relationships with family members and others – including employers and co-workers. In order to enable them to develop such relationships, participants are taught the interpersonal problem-solving skills taught in R&R. They are also trained in attending to and accurately interpreting the behavior, thoughts and emotions of others. Training involves exercises that have been employed for decades in teaching counseling skills such as active listening that enable counsellors to establish relationships with their clients
  • COMMUNICATION: participants are taught to realize the importance of clear verbal and non-verbal communication and the misunderstanding that can result from unclear communication. They are trained in skills in expressing feelings and thoughts clearly and pro-socially. 
  • PRO-SOCIAL LIFE-STORY: How individuals behave is strongly influenced by their “scripts” or their “self-narrative” that they develop through their social experience that tells them who they are and why they are that way. R&R2 includes interventions that lead participants to examine their antisocial scripts and change them to pro-social ones.
  • SELF-EFFICACY: Participants are engaged in numerous role-plays and out-of-class assignments in which they practice the pro-social skills they have been taught in order to develop confidence in their ability to employ those skills.
  • RELAPSE PREVENTION: They are trained to anticipate factors and situations that can trigger their antisocial responding and they learn pro-social skills for coping with them in order to ensure long-term maintenance of positive change.

 Descriptions of each of the R&R2 programs can be viewed by clicking on the titles on the side bar 

         R&R2 for Antisocial Adults (16 and older) 

R&R2 for Antisocial Youths (12-16) 

R&R2 for ADHD Youths and Adults 

R&R2 for Girls and Young Women

R&R2 for Youths and Adults With Mental Health Problems 

R&R2 for Families and Support Persons