R&R2 for Families and Support Persons
A key characteristic of effective programs is that they are multi-faceted. Programs must attend to all the factors that influence the individual’s proclivity for antisocial behaviour including educational, vocational, familial, and social. We cannot treat offenders in a cocoon. We must be responsive to the reality of environmental pressures towards antisocial behaviour.
Moreover, the interventions must seek to engage the client's primary social unit and significant others. They need to engage the support, understanding and reinforcement power of significant others in the participant's effort to change – including other staff members in the agency where the program is delivered. It is essential that the participants' social environment supports and rewards their new ways of thinking, feeling and behaving and enables them to have experiences that reinforce their new prosocial self-narrative.
A version of R&R2 has been developed by Robert Ross, James Hilborn and the late Richard Greene that specifically addresses an aspect of the antisocial individual’s social environment that is known to be critical in the etiology and persistence of antisocial behaviour: the family.
There is a substantial body of research that demonstrates the salience of family factors in the etiology of antisocial behavior, delinquency and adult criminality. Rather than viewing such factors as symptoms of parental pathology, the R&R2 Short Version for Families and Support Persons is based on the assumption that the parent's difficulties may reflect their lack of prosocial competence (e.g., limited prosocial problem-solving skills, emotional management skills, negotiation skills, conflict management skills, reasoning skills, and/or underdeveloped prosocial values).
Most programs for aggressive children and adolescents target only the individual. However, research would suggest that interventions should also be delivered in a family context. Actually, although many programs for parents have taught behavioral and other techniques to control their children's aggressive behavior, many parents lack the prosocial cognitive skills to benefit from such programs. However, if the parents’ social-cognitive skills are improved through training, parents may be able to facilitate the development of problem-solving skills in their children.
The R&R2 program forFamilies & Support Persons is designed to empower the family by helping family members to acquire thinking, emotional, behavioral and interpersonal skills that will enable them to cope more effectively with the inevitable problems that are encountered in family life – particularly a family life that includes an antisocial child or adolescent. Moreover, the program is designed to teach family members specific skills and values that can help them – and motivate them - to relate to one another in a way that will foster the development of prosocial competence in each family member. Thus, it is designed to prevent antisocial in the participant' siblings by improving interactions among family members that may have contributed to the development of antisocial behaviour of the participant.
It provides the family members, spouses, friends, mentors and other support persons of R&R participants with an understanding of the R&R program in order to ensure that they understand and can reinforce the R&R participants when they attempt to apply the skills they are learning.
The R&R2 Short Version is also designed to prevent delinquency in the offenders’ siblings by improving interactions among family members that may have contributed to the development of antisocial behaviour in other family members.
The program is also designed to engage friends and other support persons in supporting and reinforcing adolescents or adults who are participants in an R&R program. It is designed to provide them with an understanding of the program in order to ensure that they understand and can encourage the participants when they attempt to apply the skills they are learning in the program outside of the group sessions, particularly in the many family and social situations that are characterized by conflict, the absence of empathy and other-respect, and/or actual physical or emotional abuse.
Note: This program may be purchased without additional training by individuals who have been trained in any R&R or R&R2 or the "Ross" program.