This section presents summaries of independent, international, controlled evaluations of R&R/R&R2 published since Prof. Antonowicz' 2015 evaluation of 60 international evaluations published since R&R was developed 36 years ago. Antonowicz,  D.H. & Parker, J. (2015). Reducing Recidivism: Evidence from 26 Years of International Evaluations of Reasoning & Rehabilitation Programs. The International  Corrections & Prison Association.

Germany - 2022; 2 year recidivism and re-imprisonment rate of 110 R&R participants from juvenile and adult correctional facilities was 13.7% lower than that of a matched comparison group. Participants included violent offenders, sex offenders and property offenders. Weber, S.& Hosser, D. Das „Reasoning-and-Rehabilitation“-Programm im deutschen Strafvollzug – Auswirkungen auf die Legalbewährung. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol (2022)

Ottawa - 2022: R&R2 for Adults is now available in Arabic 

 Spain - 2021: R&R2 for Youth in school reduced cigarette smoking, drunkenness, alcohol consumption, cannabis use by students at high risk of academic failure. Recommends program be incorporated in school curriculum & maintained over time. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1488

Germany - 2021 R&R reduced aggression, impulsiveness, moral judgement, empathy and rule violations in male 17-18 prison inmates compared to control group & remained stable at 3 month follow-up. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol

 India - 2021 The Reasoning & Rehabilitation2 program will be now be taught in a Post Master Advanced Diploma in Clinical Criminology program at the School of Criminology & Behavioural Science, Rashtriya Raksha University. 

Saudi Arabia - 2021 The Reasoning & Rehabilitation program for training rational thinking, pro-social competence and values has now been approved not only for implementation in schools throughout Saudi Arabia but now also for nationwide use in offender rehabilitation.

India -2021 Dr Ross has been appointed to the Board of Eminent Resource Faculty, School of Criminology, Crime Science & Behavioral Science, Rashtriya Raksha University Gujarat, India  

Denmark - 2020 The National Board of Social Services is disseminating the R&R2ADHD program for training youths & adults with ADHD in social competence. The Cognitive Centre of Canada has certified 24 additional Trainers for the country-wide project.

Switzerland - 2020 A quasi-experimental controlled study found that the Reasoning & Rehabilitation program (R&R2 for Adults) reduced recidivism, minimized dropout rates, and improved attitudes, behaviors, and personality among males detained for violent offenses (n=84) in eight Swiss prisons. Measures included recidivism, dropout rate, hostile attribution bias, aggressiveness, interpersonal problems, and willingness to accept responsibility. They also had lower self-reported scores of spontaneous and reactive aggressiveness and excitability. Baggio, S. et al, International Journal of Public Health 2020 ttps://

Wales - May 25, 2020 It is with deep regret that we announce the death of Robin Morris-Jones, Director of the Cognitive Centre in Wales. Robin was the key figure in the dissemination of Reasoning & Rehabilitation throughout the U.K. Robin will be remembered not only for his major contribution to the rehabilitation of offenders but for his love of family, his genuine and deep concern for others, his empathy, sincerity, genuineness and his delightful sense of humour. He was a man of whom his beloved country of Wales can be justly proud. 

Spain - 2020 Increased self-esteem, social skills, empathy and problem-solving were found in a randomized evaluation of R&R2 for Youth (n=142) among problem-adolescents in public alternative schools in Alicante Spain. M. Sánchez-SanSegundo et al., Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Health Science, University of Alicante, Int. J. Environmental Research & Public Health (April 2020, 17, 240-249)

Denmark-2020 A controlled evaluation of R&R2ADHD in Denmark found significant improvement in ADHD symptoms; emotional control; anxiety; depression; locus of control; employment and education. It also resulted in reduced demands for welfare benefits and social services.

Saudi Arabia -  2019 Professor Saad Alkarni, King Abdulaziz University, has been appointed as an Associate of the Cognitive Centre of Canada for the Middle East. He will translate the Reasoning & Rehabilitation program for implementation in schools throughout Saudi Arabia to train adolescents in rational thinking, pro-social competence, and pro-social values. He will subsequently train individuals in all Arabic-speaking countries to facilitate the program to reduce antisocial behavior. Dr. Alkarni is currently Director of the Student Skills Center at King Abdulaziz University. He previously served as Director of Education in Saudi Arabia. 

Uruguay - 2019. Dr. Olga Sanchez de Ribera (Ph.D Criminology, Cambridge) has been appointed as an Associate of the Cognitive Centre of Canada.  She is certified to train R&R Trainers in delivering R&R2 for Adults throughout South America.

Chile - 2019. Seven more staff of the Instituto de Sociología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago were trained in the Spanish edition of R&R2 for Adults and will deliver the program to prisoners in state prisons in Chile.

Canada - 2019. Twelve staff of the Waypoint Centre for Mental Health, Penetanguishene have been trained to deliver R&R2 for Youths and Adults with Mental Health Problems to patients.

Missouri – 2019.  Seven more staff of the Concordance Institute for Advancing Social Justice at Washington University were trained in May to deliver R&R2 for Adults to incarcerated individuals in Missouri state prisons. 

Canada - 2019 Psychologists Jennifer Bodera and Shari McKee have been appointed as R&R2 Instructors who are certificed train staff to deliver the R&RMHP program.  

India –2018. Faculty of the Raksha Shakti University (RSU) were trained in R&R2forAdults. The program is now being implemented with prisoners in India’s Gujarat state.

Chile – 2018. Staff of the Instituto de Sociología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago were trained in the Spanish edition of R&R2 for Adults

Spain – 2018. The Department of Health Psychology, University of Alicante has adopted R&R2forYouths to prevent drug abuse among youth in high schools through la Concejalía de Educación del Excmo, Ayuntamiento de Alicante.

California – 2018. R&R2forYouths has been adopted for implementation throughout Solano county for youths on probation.

Missouri – 2018.  R&R2 for Adults training was conducted in 2018 for staff off the Concordance Academy of Leadership in St. Louis, MO.  The Academy is the service-providing arm of the Concordance Institute for Advancing Social Justice at Washington University which delivers rigorously tested, evidence-based programs to incarcerated individuals housed within Missouri state prisons.

California – 2018. Santa Barbara California Juvenile & Adult Probation staff were trained in R&R2 for Youth and in R&R2 for Girls and Young Women. Both programs are now being implemented throughout the county.

England – 2018 Dr. Susan Young conducted a combined training workshop on R&R2ADHD and R&R2MHP in London.

Mexico – 2018. Profesora Martha Frías Armenta, Ph.D. Departamento de Derecho Universidad de Sonora was appointed as an Associate of the Cognitive Centre of Canada. Martha has been training delinquents and “at risk” juveniles in Mexico for several years in R&R2 for Youth and has published the positive results of her interventions.

Germany – 2018. Dr. Lutz Gretenkord reports that more than 500 R&RTrainers have now been qualified in Germany. He has published a review of the R&R application to mentally disturbed offenders in Germany:  Gretenkord, L. (2018). R&R - Das Reasoning and Rehabilitation Programm. In R. Muller-Isberner, P. Born, S. Eucker, & B. Eusterschulte (Eds.), Praxishandbuch MaRregelvollzug. Grundlagen, Konzepte und Praxis der Kriminaltherapie. Berlin: Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.

Canada – 2018. Dr. Ross published his book, Be a Good Sport: Drug-free Performance Enhancement for Athletes, which describes the R&R2 for Troubled & Troublesome Athletes program (Kindle Books).

INDIA 2017 A randomized experimental evaluation of R&R2 juveniles in prison in India found “noticeable improvements” in such negative traits as lack of remorse, impulsiveness, lack of empathy, irresponsibility, deceitfulness lack of acceptance of responsibility…Global J.for Research Analysis 2017, 6 ISSN No 22778160z

 U.S.A. - 2011 R&R2 for Adults with Probationers in Connecticut The State of Connecticut has been implementing R&R2 for Adults throughout the state with medium and high-risk probationers since 2006. Probationers attend “Alternative (to) Incarceration Centers” in their community on a daily basis to receive the program. A recent evaluation has found that 76.2% of 722 probationers referred to R&R2 completed the program – a remarkable accomplishment given the typically very high rate of drop-outs from programs provided for probationers.The evaluation also found that probationers who completed R&R2 were more likely to successfully complete probation than probationers who (for various reasons) did not complete the program. Among the 550 probationers who completed the program 64.5% successfully completed probation. In contrast, of the 172 probationers who failed to complete R&R2, 68.7% failed to successfully complete probationTarallo, J. R. An investigation into the use of reasoning and rehabilitation II with adult probationers. Thesis - Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Central Connecticut State University, 2011

England 2011"R&R with Violent, Psychotic Offenders in London  R&R2 ADHD  54 adults with ADHD receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental treatment condition that included R&R2ADHD (n = 27) or to a ‘treatment as usual’ control condition (n = 27) that did not receive the R&R2ADHD program. Medium to large positive treatment effects of the R&R2ADHD program after treatment were found for symptoms of ADHD and antisocial behavior. • The magnitude of these effects was even greater at three month follow-up - large positive treatment effects were found for ADHD symptoms,, impairments, and comorbid/associated problems including antisocial behavior.Combined psychopharmacological and R&R2ADHD treatment can improve the benefits of pharmacological interventions. MC Psychiatry 11:116 doi:10.1186/1471- 244X-11-16.Link  

England 2010 A controlled evaluation of male patients detained in high and medium security institutions consisted of 70 male patients referred to the program. Fifty-eight were allocated to  R&R2MHP programme and 12 were ‘waiting list controls’.the program completion rate was 65% Offenders who completed the program demonstrated significant improvement on two key outcome measures:1. Violent attitudes 2. Disruptive and social problem behaviour (ratings by psychiatric nurses ).  Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 21 January 2010 (iFirst).

Canada 2009  outcomes for  male penitentiary offenders : male R & R participants:changes in attitudes and beliefs that are consistent with program targets • less likely than the comparison group to be readmitted for any reason (including technical revocations), a new offence, or a new violent offence.• 31% less likely to return to custody for a new offence• 27% less likely to be readmitted after release for any reason• 49% less likely to be readmitted with a new violent offence. Evaluation Report: Correctional Service Canada’s Correctional Programs, 2009

2009 U.K. National Institute for Health Clinical Excellence Guidelines The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for England and Wales provides guidelines based on the best available research evidence to inform patients, professionals and the public about appropriate treatment for specific conditions. NICE guidelines for interventions to reduce offending and other antisocial behaviours were developed in 2009 by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the British Psychological Society for two groups of individuals:

1. Antisocial Personality Disorder: The NICE guidelines identify as the "Key priorities for implementation" - "group-based cognitive and behavioural interventions such as Reasoning and Rehabilitation".

2.Psychopathy or dangerous and severe personality disorder: The NICE guidelines recommend cognitive and behavioural interventions such as Reasoning and Rehabilitation. Moreover, the guidelines highlight the necessity of providing on-going follow-up and ensuring close monitoring and also extending the nature of R&R by providing booster sessions and individual sessions - both are now enabled by all R&R2 programs.

Source: NICE (January 2009), Antisocial personality disorder: Treatment, management and prevention. Quick reference guide.

2010 United Kingdom: R&R Cost-Benefit Analysis  NICE published its cost benefit analysis of Reasoning and Rehabilitation  The report concludes:" Reasoning and Rehabilitation programmes are cost effective in the UK setting. The cost of providing the Reasoning and Rehabilitation programme to an adolescent with offending behaviour was estimated at £121 (2006/7 prices). The reduction in the re-offending rates by providing Reasoning and Rehabilitation to adult offenders yield "cost savings equalling £869" per adult offender over 1 year. Because Reasoning and Rehabilitation programmes costs £637 per adult offender, the intervention yields an "overall net saving of £232" per adult offender over 1 year. "The intervention became cost neutral over 1 year". Ross & Hilborn stress in their 2008 book, Rehabilitating Rehabilitation, that "the goal of reducing recidivism or re-offending has become the sine qua non of offender treatment programs and the marker of the success of the offender rehabilitation movement. Whereas such a goal may be appropriate to one of the primary purposes of the criminal justice system, it fails to do justice to the many other problems of offenders. We may reduce their  offending but we often leave them to continue to drain the social services system"NICE also recognizes that assessment of the benefits of R&R should not be limited to recidivism. Its cost-benefit analysis concludes:Reasoning and Rehabilitation "reduces offending behaviour and this can potentially lead to a reduction in other costs such as healthcare costs and social benefit payments...Other costs, such as healthcare costs and emotional distress of victims, the financial and economic burden to the families of both victims and offenders, and the feelings of fear and insecurity at anticipation of crime were not considered in most documents reporting cost data on offending behaviour. Consideration of these factors might increase the reported figures on cost-savings resulting from reduction in offending behaviour achieved by offering Reasoning and Rehabilitation programmes to adult offenders".Source: The British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists (2010). Antisocial Personality  Disorder: Treatment, Management And Prevention. National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 77 National  Collaborating Centre for Mental Health commissioned by the National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence. Note: NICE publications can be obtained at or by email:; 

 2008 Spain R&R2 for Adults in Spanish - A Spanish translation of the R&R2 for Adults program has been developed by Dr. RITA MARTÍN CABALLERO and Dr. JUAN MANUEL BETHENCOURT PÉREZ at the Universidad de La Laguna in the Canary Islands where R&R has been implemented and its efficacy demonstrated for many years - most recently with drug addicts in Tenerife. Contact for information.

2009 - Spain  A Six Year Follow-up has confirmed that providing a "goal oriented approach" such as helping offenders to attain and maintain a job "increases offenders' motivation to engage in the R & R program and therefore enhances its effects on recidivism".A quasi-experimental study of 117 high-risk repeat offenders, serving sentences for drug dealing, property offences, and offences against the person found that offenders who in addition to R&R training also received "social and employment integration" had lower recidivism than those who received only R&R and those who received neither of those interventions. "Social and employment integration" (SEI) was designed not to increase work skills (as in vocational training programs), but to help offenders find and keep a job by arranging contact with instructors and employers and by fostering the prosocial behaviours required for successful job performance.Employment training has been a staple international core curriculum of correctional programming for decades. However, this new study confirms earlier research (Martín and Hernández,1995; Martín, Hernández, and Hernández-Fernaud, 2004) which found that vocational training in itself had a very small impact on reducing recidivism when compared to R&R training and to social and employment integration. Moreover, the recidivism benefits of combining R&R training with social and employment integration was greater than implementing social-cognitive skills training or social employment integration on their own.The long-term benefits of combining R&R with social and employment integration have now been demonstrated by this recent study with a six year follow-up.Results:

The six-year follow up found that that R&R had a significant positive effect on delaying ex-offenders’ recidivism.

R&R: 18% improvement R&R + SE:I 27% improvement

Moreover, "the R&R+SEI group evidenced a stable probability of survival (absence of reoffending) over time and a lower rate of recidivism particularly in the late part of the follow-up.

Note: The Spanish version of R&R has been implemented in Spain and in South America since 1996 Source: Martín, A.M., Hernández, B., Hernández-Fernaud, E., Arregui, J.L. y Hernández, J.A. The enhancement effect of social and employment integration on the delay of recidivism of released offenders trained with the R &R

2009 Iran R&R with Prisoners The efficacy of a program based on R&R with prisoners in Iran has been demonstrated in a recent experimental evaluation with prison inmates. "About a third of the inmates had committed robbery, about a fourth assault and battery, and about a fifth murder. Nine percent had committed fraud, 8 percent rape, and 8 percent drug dealing". "Nearly a third had mental disorders prior to conviction (primarily anxiety, depression, somatization, and obsessive-compulsive disorder)". Approximately 50% had a history of illicit drug use. 180 prisoners were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1: individual treatment; 2.: group + individual treatment; 3: controls Results: A. Psychological Functioning: 1. Prisoners who received individual the program or individual plus the group program improved significantly more than controls on several measures of psychological functioning (General Health Questionnaire; Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and diagnostic interviews based on DSM-IV). 2. Prisoners who received both individual and group programming improved even more on these psychological functioning measures than prisoners who received only the individual program. B. One year recidivism: Control group:                             15 % Individual-plus-group program:   0% Source: Psychiatric News (November 20, 2009) and online in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology (August 31, 2009)

2009 Canary Islands R&R with Drug Abusing Offenders in Tenerife, Canary Islands Dra. Dª A. Rita Martín Caballero conducted an evaluation of the efficacy of R&R with drug addicts in a Day Treatment Centre in Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The quasi-experimental design pre-post treatment study examined outcome for 58 adult drug abusers receiving the R&R program compared with 177 comparison subjects who did not receive the R&R program. The program consisted of the R&R program adapted for a spanish population with additional emphasis (consistent with the new R&R2 programs) on emotional control (specifically training on attributions, self efficacy and
relaxation techniques).
Statistically significant differences in favour of the R&R group compared to controls were found in improvements on each of the items in tests of the following: Alternative thinking; Causal thinking; Consequential thinking; Social perspective taking; and Means - End reasoning Source: Dra. Dª A. Rita Martín Caballero; Dr. D. Juan Manuel Bethencourt Pérez; Dr. Pablo García Medina; Dr. Arquímedes Fernández Valdés; Dr. Gustavo Ramírez Santana (2009). Valoration and Training in Social Competence in drug addicts: a specific implementation with users of the Day Center "Cercado del Marqués".

2009 London England R&R with Mentally Disordered Offenders in London A quasi-experimental evaluation of the efficacy of R&R with male offenders with psychotic disorders was conducted in forensic medium security hospitals in London.Results:Psychosocial functioning (problem solving ability and coping) improved after treatment among offenders who received the full R&R program.Source: Clarke, A.Y., Cullen, A.E., Walwyn, R. and Fahy, T. (in press) A quasi-experimental pilot study of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation programme with mentally disordered offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology.

Channel Islands 2009 A 2009 analysis of the outcome over a three and a half year period for probationers in Jersey on the Channel Islands has been reported.Results:Statistically significant reductions in risk of re-offending for those receiving the R&R program.These results support and extend the positive results of two previous evaluations (2001 and 2004).Source: Dr Helen Miles, Professor Peter Raynor, Ms Brenda Coster (2009) Community Sentences and their Outcomes in Jersey: the third report.

Earlier reports: 1. Raynor, P. & Miles H. (2001) Risk, Needs and Re-offending: Evaluating the Impact of Community Sentences in Jersey, University of Wales, Swansea. 2.Miles, H.& Raynor, P. (2004) Community Sentences in Jersey: risks, needs and rehabilitation. St.Helier: Jersey Probation and After-Care 

Finland 2010 An evaluation of a 2 year follow-up of prisoners in Finland receiving R&R found the following: Completion rate among 294 offenders: 66% •Recidivism ( a new sentence) after 2 years: Control group:  65% R&R completers:  49 % • Probability of recidivism: average prisoners: 50.6% average R&R completers: 18.5 % (difference is 32 per cent) Source: O. Honka, A. Keinänen & S. Tyni (2010)The Impact of Cognitive Skills Training on Post-release Recidivism. University of Eastern Finland (power point presentation). Anssi Keinänen, University of Eastern Finland,