R&R Program


Robert R. Ross, Elizabeth Fabiano & Roslynn D. Ross 

The Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) program is an internationally accredited, evidence-based, multi-faceted, cognitive-behavioural program for teaching the cognitive skills, social skills and values that are required for prosocial competence. R&R provides 35, highly structured, manualized, two hour sessions for groups of 6-12 youths or adults who are evidencing antisoclal behaviours or delinquent or criminal behaviour.

The R&R program was based on analysis of more than a hundred rigorously evaluated programs that had been found to be effective in the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents and adult offenders. It is also based on forty years of research demonstrating the relationship between cognition and offending. 

 R&R has been delivered over the past twenty years to more than seventy thousand offenders in twenty countries including Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, Estonia, Germany, Holland, Hong Kong, Japan, Jersey, Latvia, Lebanon, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Channel Islands, the Canary Islands, the United Arab Emirates, Wales and most of the states in the USA. 

Efficacy: R&R is the most widely disseminated and the most frequently evaluated cognitive behavioral offender rehabilitation program. When implemented with integrity by well trained and well motivated trainers, its efficacy has been demonstrated in numerous international, independent, controlled evaluations; in meta-analyses; and in cost-benefit analyses.  A recent review concluded that

"R&R is one of the most frequently evaluated programs. Its efficacy has been examined in a remarkable number of independent international evaluations not only in Canada where it was developed but also in California, Colorado, Georgia, Texas, Germany, Scotland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It is clear that the cognitive model and the R&R program that it spawned has been well received in the criminal justice community for more than eighteen years - a remarkable achievement given the typical short shelf-life of many if not most offender treatment programs. This review would indicate that the enthusiasm has been reinforced by evidence of its efficacy in a variety of settings, with a variety of types of offenders in a variety of countries". Antonowicz (2005).

   Metanalyses: A meta-analyses of R&R evaluations found:

"A 14% decrease in re-offending by R&R participants in institutional settings compared with controls and a 21% decrease for participants in community settings...The program was found to be effective in different countries, in community and institutional settlings, in smaller and larger evaluation studies, older and newer studies and with a variety of types of offenders" (Tong & Farrington, 2006). A second metanalysis also found an overall reduction in recidivism of 14% (Tong & Farrington, 2007).

 Cost-benefits: The cost-effectiveness of R&R was analyzed by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Aos, Phipps, Barnoski & Lieb, 2001). It examined benefit-to-cost ratios, and rates of return on investment and concluded:

 Accreditation: R&R was one of the first programs to be approved by program Accreditation Panels in England and Wales; Scotland; and Canada.  

"cost per participant is low, about $300… effect sizes, coupled with the low cost of the program, produce attractive… economic bottom lines of about $2,400 in net taxpayer-only benefits per participant.

Now also available in Spanish for application in South America & Spain and for Hispanics in U.S.A.